By Jean-Claude Geffroy, Gilles Motet (auth.)
This e-book analyzes the motives of mess ups in computing platforms, their outcomes, as weIl because the current recommendations to regulate them. The area is tackled in a revolutionary and academic demeanour with ambitions: 1. The gaining knowledge of of the fundamentals of dependability area at process point, that's to claim independently ofthe expertise used (hardware or software program) and of the area of program. 2. the knowledge of the elemental ideas on hand to avoid, to take away, to tolerate, and to forecast faults in and software program applied sciences. the 1st goal results in the presentation of the final challenge, the fault versions and degradation mechanisms wh ich are on the foundation of the mess ups, and at last the tools and methods which allow the faults to be avoided, got rid of or tolerated. This examine issues logical structures more often than not, independently of the and software program applied sciences installed position. this information is fundamental for 2 purposes: • a wide a part of a product' s improvement is self sustaining of the technological capability (expression of necessities, specification and many of the layout stage). quite often, the advance staff doesn't own this simple wisdom; consequently, the dependability standards are thought of uniquely throughout the technological implementation. Such an technique is dear and inefficient. certainly, the elimination of a initial layout fault might be very tricky (if attainable) if this fault is detected through the product's ultimate testing.
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C. , Design of Dependable Computing Systems © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002 Chapter 3 40 designer or manufacturer) can vary somewhat. A dient' s or user' s point of view in terms of requirements is not necessarily the same as that of the designer or the manufacturer! 1. The distributor does not function correctly A user of a drinks distributor, can effectively reckon the service he/she expects is not given because the spoon or the cup does not fall into place, or the machine takes the money and does not give back change, or else the coffee does not have enough sugar or is too bitter or even that it is too expensive.
1. We distinguish three parts: • The product is a physical entity destined to satisfy a need of one or several users. The products considered in this book are implemented by hardware and software technologies. • The user is the grouping of entities interacting functionally with the product via its inputs/outputs. The user is also called the functional environment. g. an engine) or a human operator using the product. • The product-user couple is immersed in the non-functional environment often simply called environment.
0,; • " '. , . &. ~ ~ Ii' :~ " ? ' ... i;" ~a ---+ Output ~ M2 :.. 6. 2 Hierarchy In a hierarchical structure, a 'father' module breaks down into interconnected 'children' modules, wh ich can themselves be broken down in a recursive manner until reaching 'leaf' modules which do not have children. 6, the product breaks down into two children: Ml2 and M3 coupled by two links. Ml2 breaks down into two interconnected children: MI and M2. Hence, the system is organized according to a tree structure, the leaves of wh ich are non-structured modules.