By Matthijs Bogaards, Sebastian Elischer
The exact factor revisits Levitsky and Way’s seminal examine on aggressive Authoritarianism (2010). The contributions by means of North American, eu, and African students deepen our figuring out of the emergence, trajectories, and results of hybrid regimes around the African continent.
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Html. 2013. National Democratic Institute (NDI). 1992. Interim report: International Delegation to the Presidential elections in Cameroon. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. National Democratic Institute (NDI). 1993. An Assessment of the October 11, 1992 Election in Cameroon. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. National Democratic Institute (NDI). 1994. International Observer delegation Cameroon Presidential Election: Preliminary post-election statement.
Benin: Legitimating Democracy: New Institutions and the Historical Problem of Economic Crisis. L’Afrique Politique 1996, democratization: arrets sur images, pp. 33–54. Magnusson, Bruce A. 2001. Democratization and Domestic Insecurity: Navigating the Transition in Benin. Comparative Politic. 33 (2): 211–230. Magnusson, Bruce A. 2005. “Democratic Legitimacy in Benin: Institutions and Identity in a Regional Context,” in The Fate of Africa’s Democratic Experiments: Elites and Institutions in Comparative Perspective.
First elections following peace agreements20 or national conferences21 were moments of sweeping transition, often characterized by rapid liberalization of the political and civil spheres, the creation of independent electoral 17 This did not affect the electoral variables. Electoral variables were coded for pertinent issues present during the electoral process de¿ned as starting from the of¿cial announcement of elections and/or opening of of¿cial campaign period, ending with the investiture of the new of¿ces.