Datums and Map Projections: For Remote Sensing, GIS and by Iliffe, Jonathan; Lott, Roger

By Iliffe, Jonathan; Lott, Roger

Through the years seeing that its first visual appeal, "datums and map projections" has turn into a key publication for plenty of scholars and execs worldwide. Its subject - a realistic consultant to coordinate reference structures - is as very important now as while it was once first released, most likely extra so after we reflect on the ever transforming into use of satellite tv for pc navigation platforms and the creation of net mapping providers reminiscent of google earth.while keeping the advantages of the 1st variation - transparent presentation assuming no earlier wisdom, a problem-solving method, functional examples and the combo of gps-derived facts with info from different assets - the rewritten and extended moment version bargains a great deal extra: a unique constitution to provide a greater grouping of universal issues; larger scope to hide all attainable varieties of coordinate reference approach which are utilized in mapping and similar parts; extra examples and case reports from around the globe; adoption of the terminology of the iso 19111 normal (spatial referencing via coordinates); and use of color illustrations. This continues to be an important textual content for college students and practitioners in all components of geomatics - surveying, distant sensing, gis, gps - and masses extra. Its available nature additionally makes it appropriate for an individual with an curiosity within the topic and its functions

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13 Latitude and longitude related to different geodetic datums. 14 illustrates the vertical component. It shows the height of the geoid with respect to ellipsoidal heights in the British OSGB 1936 and European ED50 coordinate reference systems, respectively. Note that in these two diagrams the geoid is the same; it is the reference system that has changed. In these illustrations both systems are locally fitted to the geoid; the vertical coordinate values at a point are within a few metres. 1. The general principle here, for horizontal and vertical coordinates, is that coordinates as numbers are ambiguous.

Prior to the advent of satellite geodesy, all national datums were of necessity defined independently of each other. The effect of defining the datum in this way is that the ellipsoid is not exactly geocentric; its centre is offset from the centre of the Earth. Different datums will have differing offsets. Since the advent of earth-orbiting satellites, the technique for relating the ellipsoid to the Earth has changed. Firstly, the size and shape of the best-fitting ellipsoid is now much more refined, with the GRS 1980 figure accepted as the best model.

But it is a continuous surface. 50 m at Bristol (Avonmouth) (POL 2007). 19 shows this schematically, but it should be remembered that a vertical datum such as ODN is not itself an equipotential surface but a realisation of one. It is relatively straightforward to determine these levels at tide gauges. In between gauges, or out to sea, the interpolation or extrapolation of levels is more problematic. This would usually be accomplished by assuming a smooth interpolation or by finding more information on the change in the tidal regime through such means as co-tidal and co-range charts.

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