By M. Desaintfuscien
Physical approaches, concerning atomic phenomena, let increasingly more distinct time and frequency measurements. This development isn't attainable with out handy processing of the respective uncooked info. The booklet describes the information processing at quite a few degrees: layout of the time and frequency references, characterization of the time and frequency references, functions related to exact time and/or frequency references. The metrological homes balance, accuracy and reproducibility are outlined and the methods resulting in their characterization are proven. many of the points of the variance of the frequency fluctuations are mentioned and in comparison and their importance is given.
Some significant functions of the easiest frequency and time criteria are ultimately mentioned. the way in which the extraordinary precision of those assets is used to acquire designated time and place info is shown:
- Time scales, used to explain each human and sports, reminiscent of astronomy, actual legislation, etc.
- Positioning structures, comparable to GPS
- Very lengthy base interferometry (VLBI)
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Extra info for Data Processing in Precise Time and Frequency Applications
In this case, static approximation cannot be applied to the atomic response. The transient part of the response, which occurs at every half period of the modulation, is not taken into account and only the constant (or slowly varying) part of the response is used to generate the error signal. A digital processing is well suited for this purpose. The error signal may be used – – either to permanently correct the frequency of the local oscillator. In this case, the feedback loop is closed and the device delivers that frequency controlled by the transition frequency; or to record the ﬂuctuations of this local oscillator relative to its nominal frequency.
7. Transition probability of an atom across a Ramsay cavity Fig. 8. Central part of the pattern of Fig. 7 This central lobe is used to lock the frequency of the local oscillator to the frequency of the transition, since its maximal value occurs for the exact value of the transition frequency. 0 kHz, which corresponds to T = 500 µs. 3 Atomic Frequency Standards 23 Fig. 9. 4) becomes P (b, δω, t, T ) = 4 sin2 bt 2 cos2 = sin2 (bt) cos2 bt 2 cos2 δωT + Φ 2 . 8) In fact, in a thermal beam, there is a distribution of the atomic velocities and only the central lobe remains visible, the other ones being blurred by the velocity dispersion.
4. The correction of the frequency of the local oscillator. They are qualitatively identical to the functions of the electronic part of the thermal beam. Nevertheless, an important diﬀerence results from the fact that the beam is pulsed: the atomic response is a discrete-time process, which leads to aliasing of the noise spectral density that must be taken into account (the Dick eﬀect [42, 9, 84]). This is discussed in Sect. 3. 3 Control of the Local Oscillator Frequency It was pointed out in Chap.