Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 2nd Edition, by John L. Hennessy

By John L. Hennessy

"Once in a good whereas, a landmark computer-science booklet is released. desktop structure: A Quantitative method, moment variation, is one of these booklet. In an period of fluff computing device books which are, relatively appropriately, remaindered inside of weeks of e-book, this booklet will stand the try of time, changing into lovingly dog-eared within the palms of somebody who designs desktops or has matters in regards to the functionality of computing device programs." - Robert Bernecky, Dr. Dobb's magazine, April 1998Computer structure: A Quantitative method used to be the 1st ebook to target desktop structure as a contemporary technological know-how. Its book in 1990 encouraged a brand new method of learning and realizing laptop layout. Now, the second one version explores the following new release of architectures and layout recommendations with view to the future.A foundation for contemporary desktop architectureAs the authors clarify of their preface to the second one variation, laptop structure itself has gone through major swap for the reason that 1990. targeting at present principal and rising advertisement structures, the Hennessy and Patterson have ready fullyyt new chapters overlaying extra complex topics:* complicated Pipelining: a brand new bankruptcy emphasizes superscalar and a number of issues.* Networks: a brand new bankruptcy examines intensive the layout concerns for small and big shared-memory multiprocessors.* garage platforms: elevated presentation comprises insurance of I/O functionality measures.* reminiscence: accelerated insurance of caches and memory-hierarchy layout addresses modern layout issues.* Examples and workouts: thoroughly revised on present architectures equivalent to MIPS R4000, Intel 80x86 and Pentium, PowerPC, and HP PA-RISC.Distinctive presentationThis booklet keeps the fashion of the 1st variation, with revised sections on Fallacies and Pitfalls, placing all of it jointly and historic point of view, and comprises completely new sections on Crosscutting matters. the focal point on primary suggestions for designing genuine machines and the eye to maximizing cost/performance are the most important to either scholars and dealing pros. a person excited by construction desktops, from palmtops to supercomputers, will make the most of the services provided via Hennessy and Patterson.

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Extra info for Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 2nd Edition, 1996

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Compiler and hardware optimizations can artificially inflate performance of these benchmarks but not of real programs. The other side of the coin is that because these benchmarks are not natural programs, they don’t reward optimizations of behaviors that occur in real programs. Here are some examples: ■ ■ ■ Optimizing compilers can discard 25% of the Dhrystone code; examples include loops that are only executed once, making the loop overhead instructions unnecessary. To address these problems the authors of the benchmark “require” both optimized and unoptimized code to be reported.

33 Frequency of FPSQR= 2% CPI of FPSQR = 20 34 Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Design Assume that the two design alternatives are to reduce the CPI of FPSQR to 2 or to reduce the average CPI of all FP operations to 2. Compare these two design alternatives using the CPU performance equation. ANSWER First, observe that only the CPI changes; the clock rate and instruction count remain identical. 64 We can compute the CPI for the enhancement of all FP instructions the same way or by summing the FP and non-FP CPIs.

Designs with higher power consumption will be faster and also usually larger. Such power differences can come from changes in technology, such as the use of ECL versus CMOS, or from a change in the design, such as the use of static memory cells rather than dynamic memory cells. If the power increase is sufficient, it can overcome the disadvantage arising from the size increase. Thus, the smaller-is-faster rule applies only when power differences do not exist or are taken into account. Increasing memory bandwidth and decreasing the time to access memory are both crucial to system performance, and many of the organizational techniques we discuss will focus on these two metrics.

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