By L. T. Matveev (auth.)
During fresh a long time a brand new box of analysis in atmospheric technology has made its visual appeal - the dynamics of clouds. because the identify implies, the subject material of cloud dynamics comprises the factors of cloud formation and the temporal improvement of clouds. before everything, attempt used to be targeted as a rule on devising versions of the constitution and improvement of convective clouds, and therefore there exists significant literature in this [9, sixty nine, 88, 330, 411]. even supposing convective clouds are of significant importance (thunder typhoon formation and extremely severe turbulence are linked to those clouds), they're saw less usually than different cloud kinds. for example, the frequency of prevalence of strati shape (frontal) clouds and wave clouds over the U.S.S.R. and Western Europe is greater than ninety% [2-4]. over the past 20 or 30 years there was substantial luck in learning the dynamics of stratiform clouds. basic legislation (equations) describing the formation, improvement, and dis sipation of those clouds (and additionally of fog) were formulated, and in addition legislation describing the formation of humidity and temperature fields in a turbulent medium. Hydrodynamic versions of clouds and fog built at the foundation of those equations have made it pos sible to formulate the basic regularities within the formation and evolution of large-scale cloud fields, and in addition to check the structural beneficial properties of clouds of varied forms. those themes are lined in Chapters 1-4 of this monograph.
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Extra info for Cloud Dynamics
Only in the Boussinesq appr oxi mation , where the density fluctuations a r e neglec t ed, does the heat- influx equation assume the simpler form in which it is usually expressed: 0 . 7) . 9) This equation is usually J 09 _ it Tx- I 87 R I (fX-C; Ii T al~o simplified somewhat. Since iJp (fX' where the second term on the right-hand side is about 1/10 as great as the first, and _ .. -y, where y - 3T/3z is the vertical temperature gradient [lapse rate] y a ,. 2 . 10) Here, we have neglected the dep~ndences of pkx and pky on x and y, and we have taken into account that the foregoing relation for for 3 a/ax is also valid for the derivatives with respect to y and t.
Even in the form given by (1 . 13). the equation for the function f has not so far been utilized in the modeling of cloud-formation processes . How justified are the premises adopted when deriving the equation for f (relations between scales TO' T*, Tv . ). and whether this equation was simplified legitimately, are 37 EQUATIONS OF HEAT AND MOISTURE TRANSFER questions which, like some others, must await comprehensive experimental investigations. 2 . DPOple t growth by coal escence in a turbu l ent medium Like condensation.
Taking into account the fall of cloud elements and the fallout of pl'ecipitation If the water droplets and ice crystals become large enough (tens or hundreds of microns in radius) , so that precipi t ation starts to fall from the cloud, then it is necessary to take into account the transport of moisture caused by the fall of cloud elements under the influence of gravity. Let us designate as Qd the transport of drops [droplets] and crystals due to gravity (its units are kg/m 2s» and let us carry out the usual operations.