Cell biology : a short course by Stephen R Bolsover; et al

By Stephen R Bolsover; et al

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Changing γ to α in this question generates an accurate summary of the biology of polypeptides. cls September 15, 2003 21:3 3 MEMBRANES AND ORGANELLES The vast majority of the reactions that cells carry out take place in water. Eukaryotic cells are, at any one time, carrying out an enormous range of such chemical manipulations: collectively, these reactions are called metabolism (Chapter 13). In much the same way that our homes are divided into rooms that are adapted for particular activities, so eukaryotic cells contain distinct compartments or organelles to house specific functions.

4. Acids are molecules that give an H+ to water, forming H3 O+ . Dissolving an acid in water produces a solution of pH less than 7. 5. Bases are molecules that accept an H+ from water, leaving OH− . Dissolving a base in water produces a solution of pH greater than 7. 6. 0. 7. A hydrogen bond can form when a hydrogen atom takes up a position between two electron-grabbing atoms (oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur), the three forming a straight line. 8. Monosaccharides are compounds with a central skeleton of carbon to which are attached many OH groups.

Glycogen is broken down to release glucose when the cell needs energy (Chapter 13). Cellulose makes up the cell wall of plants and is the world’s most abundant macromolecule. Like glycogen, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, but this time the links are β1→4. 10b. Drawn on the flat page, it looks very like glycogen. However, the difference in bond type is critical. 10. The polysaccharides glycogen and cellulose. ideal for building the rigid plant cell wall. Animals have enzymes (protein catalysts) that can break down the α(1→4) bond in glycogen, but only certain bacteria and fungi can break the β(1→4) link in cellulose.

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