By Joseph Hanlon
North the United States: Indiana U Press
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Additional info for Beggar Your Neighbours: Apartheid Power in Southern Africa
They also pointed to SADCC's opening to the private sector in industry and energy. And they reminded South Africa that destabilisation which damaged European-assisted development would inevitably harm its case in the EEC. With the end of the liberal consensus, a clear division opened between Western governments. The US, Britain, and West Germany, the three states with the heaviest investment and trade links with South Africa, were hostile to sanctions, and SADCC's emphasis on delinking. They tried to channel new investment through South Africa.
In part US policy on SADCC is genuinely schizophrenic. On the other hand, there is an undertone of efforts to divide the SADCC states - in this instance the US is supporting projects in Mozambique while assisting UNITA to overthrow the government of another SADCC state. Changing world views Reagan's election and constructive engagement did offset some of the impact of Zimbabwe's independence, and especially of the founding of SADCC, by changing the international political climate. The US and the EEC have always wanted to safeguard their interests in the region and reduce the influence of the Eastern bloc.
Over time, they come to trust their neighbours and think more in a regional context, which leads to cooperation over bigger projects in later stages. The third difference is that SADCC is not a free trade zone, but rather is aiming for planned and widely spread regional development. Clearly, trade is essential, but it is not an end in itself. Rather it must be a means to increased development, and that requires balanced trade rather than free trade. The reason for this is that free trade zones always direct new industry to the most developed member; in SADCC that is Zimbabwe.