Bacteriophages by John Douglas M.Sc. Ph.D. D.I.C. M.I.Biol (auth.)

By John Douglas M.Sc. Ph.D. D.I.C. M.I.Biol (auth.)

The contribution of bacteriophages to the improvement of contemporary biology can't be overvalued but, sixty years after their discovery, they're as distant and mysterious to many scientists as they're to so much laymen. This e-book endeavours to treatment the placement: an try has been made to supply, in easily understandable shape, a nucleus of knowledge necessary to someone embarking at the examine of bacteriophages or utilizing them of their paintings for the 1st time. It indicates the diversity of bacteriophage constitution and behavior; it illustrates the position of bacteriophage in molecular biology; it surveys the present cutting-edge; it offers the scientific and business elements. a few easy experimental approaches are given in adequate aspect for the newbie to try them effectively. different, extra refined professional­ cedures are offered so that it will impart a sense of intimate fact with out brilliant the reader with technical complexity. i'm hoping that younger readers will forgive me for assuming that they have got a few wisdom of micro organism, nucleic acids, antibodies and isotopes. Likewise i'd ask mature employees to excuse the omission of adored specialities. To have incorporated these kind of, beneficial even though they're, may need placed this ebook past the re ach of the phage-novices for whom it truly is meant. particular references, keep some of specific curiosity, were passed over. different books on bacteriophage v vi BACTERIOPHAGES offer them in abundance.

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C ..... a. u. of phage 0712 per ml was added. 1 ml portions were removed at once and at intervals thereafter, diluted 1: 100 in chilIed broth (to prevent further adsorption and extend the latent period of the phage), the bacteria and adsorbed phage removed by centrifugation and the unadsorbed phage in the supernatant determined by plaque assay. (B. Cartwright, unpublished data). STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE VIRION 27 Adsorption is very host specific and depends on the presence in the cell wall of specific receptor sites.

The subsequent multiplication of the phage is unaffected. Clearly, the protein can be removed since it comprises the head sheath and tail which remains attached to the outside of the cel!. 6 Adsorbed Phage Part of a section of Bacillus subtilis showing three phage SP50tJ virions adsorbed to the wall. The head of the central phage appears dark since it still contains nucleic acid; that on the right has lost its nucleic acid and appears 'ghostly'. (Courtesy of Dr. G. Milne and Plant Pathology Laboratory , Rothamsted) removcd by agitation ('sheared off') because it has entered the cdl.

Etron-lueent oreos - - --- B. 16 Positive and Negative Staining for Electron Microscopy Positive staining is hardly used in bacteriophage studies except in the examination of sections of infected bacteria (see para. 7). 48 BACTERIOPHAGES particles are mixed with a solution of an electron-opaque salt such as potassium phosphotungstate or uranyl acetate before application to the filmed grid. The salt does not penetrate the specimen but produces electron-dense interstices between partides and between the monomers that compose them so that a reversed image is obtained when compared to positively stained specimens.

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