By A. B Barzam
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3 WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY The wind turbine is one of the most important elements in wind energy conversion systems. Over the years, different types of wind turbines have been developed . This section provides an overview of wind turbine technologies, including horizontal/ vertical-axis turbines and fixed/variable-speed turbines. Table 1 -5. 7 MW $2,074,000 $782,000 $2,856,000 $1,680 10 INTRODUCTION 2000 £ 3 1500 - 1000 a U 500 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Figure 1 -9. Comparison of total installed costs for on-land and offshore wind energy systems.
1 Horizontal- and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines Wind turbines can be categorized based on the orientation of their spin axis into horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) and vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT) , as shown in Figure 1-10. In horizontal-axis wind turbines, the orientation of the spin axis is parallel to the ground as shown in Figure 1-10a. The tower elevates the nacelle to provide sufficient Figure 1-10. Horizontal- and vertical-axis wind turbines. 3 WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY space for the rotor blade rotation and to reach better wind conditions.
The industry standard HAWT uses a threeblade rotor positioned in front of the nacelle, which is known as upwind configuration. However, downwind configurations with the blades at the back can also be found in practical applications. Turbines with one, two, or more than three blades can also be seen in wind farms. In vertical-axis wind turbines, the orientation of the spin axis is perpendicular to the ground. The turbine rotor uses curved vertically mounted airfoils. The generator and gearbox are normally placed in the base of the turbine on the ground, as shown in Figure l-10b.