Atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing by Robert E. Huffman

By Robert E. Huffman

This e-book is an creation to using the ultraviolet for distant sensing of the Earth's surroundings. It covers the Earth's UV radiative setting, experimental suggestions, and present purposes. it really is my goal to supply the data had to "make a primary approximation" in regards to the use of the ultraviolet and to supply entry throughout the literature for a extra thorough research. * comprises fresh UV functions no longer formerly on hand in booklet shape resembling ozone, auroral pictures, and ionospheric sensing* positive factors huge assurance of basics of atmospheric geophysics with values for fluxes, cross-sections, and radiances* Covers suggestions that illustrate rules of measurements with standard values* comprises a number of references to unique literature

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For numbers of counts of interest to us, the fractional uncertainty in the number of counts found in a given sample period is given by the well-known equation: 1 uncertamty . fractiona = ve C. 17) The product of the fractional uncertainty times the number of counts is which is the standard deviation in a group of samples all collected over the same counting period. Thus, for total counts of 100, the fractional uncertainty expressed as a percentage is 10 %, and to achieve 5 % statistical uncertainty it is necessary to have 400 counts.

ADEK. >'). Except for D, which is in steradians, the symbols in the equation have been previously defined. The field of view (FOV), D, in steradians, is the solid angle observed by the sensor, and it is determined by the design and fabrication of the sensor. The field of view D is sometimes called the object field of view. The area observed, S, from an extended source at a slant range R is DR 2 . We assume in the equation that the field of view D is well-defined for the sensor, with good rejection of radiation not in the field of view, but this should be proven by calibration and test.

The irradiance (F) is the radiation per unit area and given wavelength interval incident on the entrance aperture of a sensor or incident at some other designated place. For application of solar flux measurements to atmospheric problems, for example, tables most often use irradiance rather than the radiant intensity or the radiance of the sun itself. The units of irradiance are watt/cm 2 (~A) or photonf sec cm/ (~A). The irradiance is sometimes called the areance. The radiance (B) is the radiation in a given wavelength interval from an extended source per unit area and unit solid angle.

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