By Francesco Collamati
This thesis specializes in a unique radio-guided surgical procedure procedure for whole tumor resections. It describes all elements of the intraoperative probe, in addition to checking out and simulation of the radical method. The presentation develops the strategy from the preliminary thought to lifelike feasibility reviews which were the topic of an announcement of the yank Society of Nuclear medication. only a 12 months after finishing this paintings, the process has now been proven for the 1st time on a meningioma sufferer, confirming the entire predictions made during this thesis.
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Extra info for An Intraoperative Beta−Probe for Cancer Surgery
The minimal acquisition time (T ) needed to detect tumor residuals with a false-negative probability <5 % and a false-positive probability 1 % was estimated extrapolating the laboratory test results to a real case by means of a detailed simulation tissue adjacent to lesions (usually with a 10 : 1 ratio). The procedure used to compare experimental data and simulation will be described in Sect. 2. From the signal and background rates, taking into account the Poisson fluctuations of the measured counts, we computed the false-positive (FP) and the false-negative (FN) rates for a given time interval measurement with the probe.
1) the time needed to achieve FP ≈ 1 % and FN < 5 % and found it to be 1 s for 22 kBq/mL activity and up to 10 s in the case of activity as low as 5 kBq/mL. Keeping in mind that this techniques is at its earliest stages, and that the doses to be administered will have to be chosen after an accurate evaluation of risks and benefits, it is evident that being a first test of the first probe these are encouraging results, even if large room for improvement remains. 42 3 Design and Tests of the Probe Fig.
FLUKA provides a BEAM card by which it is possible to choose the particle kind, its energy or momentum (with the eventual spread), its starting position and direction. For more complex sources a devoted user routine must be used. err. These last two files contain useful informations in case of errors during the simulation helping to solve them. out) instead contains plenty of information about the executed run: • A header with the FLUKA version and the time when the output was printed; • A straight echo of the input cards and the geometry input, useful to quickly check if all the cards are correctly red and interpreted; • Informations about basic nuclear data files and physical models used in the simulation process; • Material parameters related to multiple scattering; • Memory allocation information; • Table of correspondence between materials used in the run and materials in the low-energy neutron cross section library; • Information on the low-energy neutron cross section • Material-dependent parameters: ionization energy losses, δ-rays and Bremsstrahlung threshold, transport thresholds; • List of FLUKA particles • Interpreted input summary • Scoring summary: list of each estimators requested; • Materials scattering length; • Energy balance: percentage of the initial energy deposited and/or lost on each region of the simulation.