Alternative Energy Sources by Efstathios E. (Stathis) Michaelides (auth.)

By Efstathios E. (Stathis) Michaelides (auth.)

Alternative strength resources is designed to offer the reader, a transparent view of the position every one type of substitute power may possibly play in providing the strength wishes of the human society within the close to destiny (20-50 years).

The first chapters on "energy call for and provide" and "environmental effects," set the tone as to why replacement strength is vital for the long run. The 3rd bankruptcy provides the legislation of strength conversion approaches, in addition to the constraints of changing one strength shape to a different. The part on exergy provides a quantitative historical past at the capability/potential of every power resource to provide strength. The fourth, 5th and 6th chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear power, the facility vegetation that could produce energy from those resources and the problems that would body the general public debate on nuclear strength. the subsequent 5 chapters comprise descriptions of the commonest renewable power assets (wind, sun, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric) many of the much less universal assets (e.g. tidal and wave energy). The emphasis of those chapters might be at the worldwide strength of every resource, the engineering/technical structures which are utilized in harnessing the potential for each one resource, the technological advancements that might give a contribution to wider usage of the assets and environmental results linked to their wider use. The final 3 chapters are: "energy storage," so as to turn into a tremendous factor if renewable strength resources are used widely.

The fourteen chapters within the booklet were selected in order that one may go a semester college direction round this ebook. on the finish of each bankruptcy, there are 10-20 difficulties and 1-3 feedback of semester tasks which may be assigned to scholars for additional study.

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Extra resources for Alternative Energy Sources

Sample text

As it will be seen in more detail in Chap. 2, the combustion of fossil fuels produces large quantities of carbon dioxide, which cause the warming of the atmosphere and global environmental change. Several countries have already adopted measures for the curtailment of carbon dioxide emissions. It is possible that other countries will follow with such regulations and the world will have meaningful restrictions on the production of carbon dioxide. 0 reduced significantly. The International Energy Authority (IEA), an agency of the United Nations, has prepared two scenarios for the future energy consumption that extend to the year 2030: The first scenario assumes that there will not be a significant regulatory intervention by the international community.

Because of this, it is apparent that these fuels will become scarce and will be exhausted in the future. Since the entire contemporary human civilization is based on the consumption of energy, the continuation of our civilization demands that humans must ensure the adequate supply of renewable energy in the near future. Technologies for the utilization of solar, wind, geothermal, and hydrogen fusion energy6 must become widely available in the future to satisfy the global energy demand and to ensure the continuation of our civilization.

The effect of this action will be a reduction of the TPES growth, especially that of fossil fuels and the substitution of fossil fuels by alternative energy and conservation measures. The first scenario is often called Reference Scenario (RS-2030) and the latter is often called the Scenario 450 PS (450 PS-2030). 4a and b show the expected consumption of TPES in the year 2030 under these two IAE scenarios. The first table depicts the expected energy demand in 2030 in the various regions of the globe and the second table gives the supply of primary energy forms that would satisfy this demand.

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