By Tsuguyoshi Suzuki, Nobumasa Imura, Thomas W. Clarkson
This publication is predicated on a world assembly prepared by way of the collage of Tokyo and the college of Rochester, and is released as one belonging to the sequence of Rochester foreign meetings in Environmental Toxicity. The assembly on "Advances in Mercury Toxicology" was once held on the collage of Tokyo on August 1 to three, 1990. The invited papers are released during this publication in addition to an "Overview" bankruptcy that used to be written via the editors at a gathering held on the college of Rochester on August 1 to two, 1991. the aim of the assembly used to be to gather major scientists to debate their most modern findings at the toxicology of mercury. The time used to be opportune. significant development has been made at the environmental destiny and toxicology of mercury. contemporary findings have given new perception into the worldwide version for mercury. delivery within the surroundings extends nice distances leading to toxins of lakes and rivers a ways far-off from the resource of mercury unencumber. the method of methylation ends up in accumulation of methylmercury in fish and therefore within the human nutrition. New proof exhibits that acid rain and the impoundment of water for hydroelectric reasons impacts the methylation and bioaccumulation approaches leading to larger degrees of methylmercury in fish.
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Extra resources for Advances in Mercury Toxicology
Dental amalgams have been estimated to be the major source of background (non-occupational) exposure to mercury vapor. As discussed in a previous section, the kinetics of disposition of inhaled mercury vapor are complex. The inhaled vapor dissolves in plasma from which it rapidly distributes to all tissues in the body. Once inside cells, it is oxidized to divalent inorganic mercury. Its disposition in tissues is highly nonuniform. Thus it is not surprising that the kinetics of disposition involve several compartments and half times.
Another important mechanism in regulating the disposition of mercury is the level of metallothionein (MT), which is related to the protection against the toxic effect of mercury. Tohyama et al. compared the immunohistochemical localization of MT in the kidney and brain after treatment with cadmium, inorganic mercury and MeHg in rats. Being different from the case of Cd, MT was detected in both the proximal and distal, and collecting tubular epithelium of the kidney after inorganic Hg administration.
Thus it is not surprising that the kinetics of disposition involve several compartments and half times. Yamamura and Yoshida found three half times for disappearance from plasma and red cells after chronic occupational exposure to mercury vapor. Urinary excretion also exhibited a triphasic pattern similar to that seen in blood. The longest half time was of the order of 100 days indicating that steady state will not be attained until after a year or more of exposure. Thereafter, one would expect to see a correlation between time weighted air concentrations and concentrations in blood and urine.