By J.F. van Impe, P.A. Vanrolleghem, D.M. Iserentant
The scope of the sector of biotechnological strategies is especially huge, masking such methods as fermentations for creation of high-valued professional chemical substances (e.g. pharmaceuticals), high-volume creation of meals and feeds (e.g. yoghurt, cheese, beer), in addition to organic waste remedy, dealing with stable (composting), liquid (activated sludge) and gaseous wastes (biofilters). in comparison to different engineering disciplines, the advent of recent optimization and keep watch over concepts is lagging in the back of. major purposes should be pointed out. First, the dwelling organisms (or half thereof) which are primary to those techniques make the mathematical modeling of the strategies a tough job, and, due to the fact versions are relevant to the improvement of regulate structures, the online keep watch over challenge can be advanced. the opposite trouble stems from the absence, commonly, of inexpensive and trustworthy instrumentation fitted to real-time monitoring.
In this booklet a few complicated suggestions is brought to house those difficulties. within the first half glossy online sensors are mentioned intimately (FIA, plausible biomass dimension, membrane inlet mass spectrometry, stream cytometry, microcalorimetry). within the moment half, novel model-based method analysis and keep watch over ideas are handled, together with advances in bioprocess modeling and id, information processing, software program sensor layout, and online keep watch over algorithms.
The publication is directed at engineers, researchers, and scholars within the box of strategy keep an eye on and structures idea as utilized to business biotechnological techniques, in addition to at bioengineers who've a few heritage on top of things engineering and need to extend their figuring out of ways complex keep an eye on thought applies to organic methods.
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Extra info for Advanced Instrumentation, Data Interpretation, and Control of Biotechnological Processes
21. Schematic design of a mass spectrometer connected on-line to bioprocesses. Two alternative uses are sketched and two alternative separation principles. Top: Pressure of a gas is converted down to approximately 1 mbar on its way through a capillary through which it is sucked using a mechanical pump. A fraction of this low-pressure gas can enter the high vacuum system of the mass spectrometer via a frit or tiny hole (several 10 to a few 100 mm in diameter). The alternative inlet is a direct membrane inlet.
Both methods require some finite time for sample transportation from the reactor outlet (at z = 0) to the location where separation of cells from supernatant or inactivation by adding appropriate inactivators (at z = L) takes place. During transport from z = 0 to z = L, the cells do not stop consuming substrate. A low substrate concentration in the reactor (namely s ~K s ) and a maximal specific substrate consumption rate of 3 g g –1 h –1 were assumed in the simulation example to reflect the situation of either a fed-batch or a continuous culture of an industrially relevant organism such as yeast.
Sonnleitner Fig. 27. g. g. by trypsinization) is necessary [117, 165]. g. , or in a flow cytometer . Inactivation is not a decisive factor unless the population to be quantified is highly synchronized and close to the cell cycle phase of cell separation. In a few cases, biomass is estimated as colony forming units (cfu’s); however, this method is employed nearly exclusively in hygienic analyses of water, waste water, soil and sludge samples. An appropriately diluted, concentrated or suspended homogeneous aliquot of the sample is plated on solid medium and incubated for a predetermined time.