By Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa (auth.), Giovanni Laviola, Simone Macrì (eds.)
Since the very early levels of existence, all of us event a few kind of pressure. Stressors should be light to serious and will diversity from unsuccessfully eager for maternal milk in infancy, to recklessly wiggling on a motorcycle to be on time to monitor the NBA finals on television, to breaking apart a dating.
All these occasions that we name “stress” have the potential of perturbing a given kingdom of mental and physiological equilibrium and relocating it to another point. The transition from crawling to strolling should be thought of a kind of rigidity up to wasting a task.
It is thru a continuing cross-talk among environmental stressors and person variations that we construct our personalities and our how you can take care of day-by-day hassles. exterior demanding situations are not unavoidably be considered as “bad”, yet as a substitute visible as positive forces forming our skill to navigate a altering world.
What is rigidity solid for? what's tension undesirable for? whilst and why can we have to be “stressed”? should still we fear approximately pressure? while does pressure equate to “normality”? whilst does it become pathology? we are hoping with this publication to supply a few solutions to those primary questions.
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Extra resources for Adaptive and Maladaptive Aspects of Developmental Stress
Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 72:300–312 Lauritzen L, Hansen HS, Jorgensen MH, Michaelsen KF (2001) The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Prog Lipid Res 40:1–94 Lesch KP, Araragi N, Waider J, van den Hov D, Gutkhecht L (2012) Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:2426–2443 Liu J, Chaplin TM, Wang F, Sinha R, Mayes LC, Blumberg HP (2012a) Stress reactivity and corticolimbic response to emotional faces in adolescents.
The ACM extends and refines the BSC theory (Boyce and Ellis 2005; Ellis et al. , Flinn 2006; Korte et al. 2005; Porges 2007; Taylor et al. 2000). From the standpoint of Tinbergen’s four questions, the main focus of the ACM is on adaptation and development, but the model also makes several novel predictions about the mechanism of the stress response. The main elements of the ACM are: (a) an evolutionary analysis of the functions of the SRS, defined as an integrated, hierarchically organized system comprising the autonomic nervous system and the HPA axis; (b) a theory of the adaptive match between environmental conditions and stress responsivity; and (c) a taxonomy of four prototypical responsivity patterns to be found in humans, their behavioral and neurobiological correlates, and their hypothesized developmental trajectories.
Following the logic of West-Eberhard’s theory (Sect. 2), it should be possible to identify a number of developmental switch points in an organism’s life cycle when plasticity is preferentially expressed and environmental cues are integrated with genotypic information to adjust the organism’s developmental trajectory. Of course, long-lived organisms can be expected to have more switch points than short-lived ones so as to permit sequential adjustment of life history decisions as environmental conditions change (Del Giudice and Belsky 2011).