By Peter Gatrell
"... a sign contribution to a becoming literature on a phenomenon that has develop into tragically pervasive within the twentieth century.... This hugely unique account combines exemplary empirical study with the sensible software of diversified how to discover the far-reaching ramifications of 'a complete empire walking.'" -- Vucinich Prize citation"An vital contribution not just to trendy Russian heritage but in addition to an ongoing repositioning of Russia in broader eu and global ancient processes.... elegantly written... hugely innovative." -- Europe-Asia reviews Drawing on formerly unused archival fabric in Russia, Latvia, and Armenia and on insights from social and significant thought, Peter Gatrell considers the origins of displacement and its political implications and gives an in depth research of humanitarian projects and the relationships among refugees and the groups during which they settled.
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Additional info for A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies)
62 Shcherbatov returned to this theme when the Duma deputy L. K. ”63 Other commentators, particularly in the liberal press, took a less coy line, openly acknowledging the routine use of compulsion, particularly as applied to Jews and Poles. 64 TARGETING MINORITIES Russia’s minorities continued to suffer the consequences of military paranoia throughout 1915. At the beginning of May, all Jews in Kaunas (Kovno) and Kurland provinces, living west of the Kaunas–Ponevezh–Posvol–Bauske line, were ordered to leave their homes and move east.
16 War and the Origins of Involuntary Displacement 17 In this manner the ®ow of refugees and other displaced persons from Russia’s imperial borderlands assumed unprecedented and unexpected dimensions, contributing to public perceptions of the war as a national catastrophe. THE FIRST PHASE OF WAR The pattern of defeat was established early in the war. Between August and December 1914, the German army repelled the Russian onslaught in east Prussia, advanced steadily along the Baltic coastal region, and made preparations to march on Warsaw.
54 The tsarist lexicon had hastily been extended, with conceptual and administrative dif¤culties that had yet to impinge fully on of¤cial consciousness. In the modern era, a distinction is often drawn between approaches that, on the one hand, treat refugees as victims of emergencies requiring an urgent humanitarian response and, on the other, deal with refugees as a foreign policy or security issue. Recent discussions have also focused on the human rights dimensions of involuntary population displacement.