By Roy D’Andrade (auth.)
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Additional info for A Study of Personal and Cultural Values: American, Japanese, and Vietnamese
Sometimes, based on the correlations, an item could equally well be placed in more than one cluster; so the deciding factor tended to be the semantic clarity of the resulting cluster. Sometimes a cluster could be broken up and its items reallocated with some loss in the clarity of cluster structures but an offsetting increase in reliability because the clusters were then all larger. Although the subjective element in constructing clusters may make the process seem unscientific, what counts in the end is the effectiveness of the constructed clusters—how well these clusters account for the total data and how reliable they are.
One reverses the object, the other reverses the action. The self-interest pole includes hierarchical, competitive, self-arrogating items, as well as nonhierarchical items involving being employed, being healthy, being liked, fitting in, and so on. This point is important, because it is tempting to treat the difference between altruism versus self-interest as nothing more than a contrast between egalitarianism versus hierarchy. But, in the Three Society data, hierarchy is a secondary feature of the self-interest dimension; the primary emphasis is on taking care of oneself.
The first attempt focused on a search for less obvious kinds of statistical differences. There were some successes in this venture, which are presented in the chapters that follow. However, in was in working with Leininger’s and Minami’s ethnographic data, as well as with published ethnographic reports by Fujita, Sano, Shimizu, and others about Japanese norms and values, that ideas first began to emerge that could explain the apparent paradox. These ideas are presented in the later chapters of this book.