By Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin (auth.)
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One of its rulers, Hano, was responsible for building settlements along the Moroccan coast. The constitution of Carthage was one of the most elaborate in antiquity. Political leadership was based on heredity. Kings assumed sacral, judicial, political, and military powers. Certain families were prominent in its political life. For example, the Magnid family ruled between the fifth and sixth century BCE. This was a period of state consolidation through increased control over conquered territories.
According to the Bornu Chronicle—the written history of Kanem-Bornu—a number of pagan rulers succeeded each other between 800 AD and 1087 AD, when the first Muslim ruler, Humai (1087–97), came to the throne. Horses and camels were introduced in large numbers by the Kanuri at this time. The renowned and feared Kanuri cavalry then became the core of the king’s military force. During the next 150 years, Kanem extended its power. During the reign of Dunama I (1097–1150), Kanem began its expansion by gaining control of the desert caravan routes.
114 The nature of the colonial state did not allow measures for conflict resolution since Europeans assumed Africans were stateless or preferred authoritarian rule. ”116 African states must be transformed from within. 117 MarcLouis Ropivia proposes a new theoretical approach to federalism and economic and political integration in sub-Saharan Africa. Ropivia summarizes the whole problematic of African federalism and of political integration in sub-Saharan Africa in six statements: 1. Being of North American origin, Pan-Africanism has only had a limited impact on the African continent.