A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan by Christian Puff

By Christian Puff

Biosystematic experiences at the Rubiaceae have an extended culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this kin the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan individuals, are of specific curiosity as a result of numerous features of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside an another way approximately completely zoophilous relatives; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and eventually dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. even if, morphological variety associated with sexual differentia­ tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our figuring out of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. hence, it used to be primary to place specific emphasis on box observations and to hold out various experiments with cultivated vegetation as well as the research of a tremendous herbarium fabric. the writer, consequently, conducted wide box paintings, frequently below very adversarial stipulations, and lined such a lot African international locations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this approach a large number of information was once collected at the workforce in recognize to germination and progress shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu­ tion and ecology, etc.

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Heteromorpha (Fig. 26 e) may be identical to that of N. cinerea. These two species are the only two taxa in the Anthosperminae that show a continuous several-layered dermal tissue. According to VESQUE (cited by SOLE REDER 1893) a "hypoderm" is present in Coprosma baueri (sub tribe Comprosminae). A reinvestigation of this species has shown that there is in fact a continuous layer of colourless cells between the actual epidermis and the mesophyll which is at least twice as thick as the epidermal layer; it is absent from the lower surface.

Herbaceum, represented by a number of rather divergent ecotypes over its whole range of distribution (Figs. 80-82), is quite variable in this respect. Plants of A. herbaceum may also produce prostrate to ascending lateral shoots whose basal portions root at the nodes and are eventually covered in debris and soil, so that older individuals can become ± intermediate between proper pleiocorm and rhizome perennials. 30 C. General Part Fig. 13. Growth forms of Galopina and Nenax. aold plant of G. circaeoides (PUFF 791222-111) with extensive rhizome system and several flowering and vegetative aerial shoots (inflorescences shown as ellipses; aerial portions highly schematic).

24 a'), giving rise - on the outside - to small papillae which eventually cover the entire leaf surface (cf. Fig. 17 d). On the lower surface of the young leaf pictured in Fig. 19 a, no papillae are as yet developed, while in older leaves these papillae are so dense that it may even be difficult to detect the stomata (Fig. 15 e). The origin of the two- to several-layered dermal tissue of C. heteromorpha (Fig. 26 e) may be identical to that of N. cinerea. These two species are the only two taxa in the Anthosperminae that show a continuous several-layered dermal tissue.

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