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For urban systems, the European system can take advantage of the flexible secondary; for example, transformers can be sited more conveniently. For rural systems and areas where load is spread out, the North American primary system is more flexible. The North American primary is slightly better suited for picking up new load and for circuit upgrades and extensions. • Safety — The multigrounded neutral of the North American primary system provides many safety benefits; protection can more reliably clear faults, and the neutral acts as a physical barrier, as well as helping to prevent dangerous touch voltages during faults.
The three-wire European system helps protect against sags from line-to-ground faults. A squirrel across a bushing (from line to ground) causes a relatively high impedance fault path that does not sag the voltage much compared to a bolted fault on a well-grounded system. Even if a phase conductor faults to a low-impedance return path (such as a well-grounded secondary neutral), the delta – wye customer transformers provide better immunity to voltage sags, especially if the substation transformer is grounded through a resistor or reactor.
Crew safety and acceptance — Crews do not like working on higher-voltage distribution systems. Equipment cost — From transformers to cable to insulators, higher-voltage equipment costs more. 9 regulators and capacitors for voltage support. Utilities can use smaller conductors on a higher voltage system or carry more power on the same size conductor. Utilities can run much longer distribution circuits at a higher primary voltage, which means fewer distribution substations. Some fundamental relationships are: • Power — For the same current, power changes linearly with voltage.